1. Understands geography through the study of relationships among people, places, and environments
History: Time, Continuity, and Change
2. Knows how to use the processes and resources of historical inquiry to develop historical perspective, explain historical relationships, and analyze issues that affect the present and the future
3. Understands the chronological organization of history; understands the impact of major ideas, eras, themes, technologies, developments and turning points in American History
Civics: Political Science and Citizenship
4. Understands the purposes, principles, and structure of the United States government
5. Understands citizenship and civic responsibility
Economics: Choices and Decisions
6. Understands the role economic choices and economic decisions have played in American history
Behavioral Sciences: Individuals, Institutions and Society
7. Understands the interactions among individuals, groups, and institutions and the impact on United States history
Geography: People, Places, and Environments
1. Understands geography through the study of relationships among people, places, and environments.
Students gain geographical perspectives on the world by studying the earth and the interactions of people with the places where they live, work and play. Knowledge of geography helps students to address the various cultural, economic social, and civic implications of life in earth’s many environments. The study of geography will be integrated into the United States history curriculum so students understand the role of geography in the shaping of the United States.
Determine how geography affected the development of the United States Apply the five themes of geography (i.e., location, place, human-environmental interaction, movement, and region) as they relate to the development of the United States [D, WI]
Utilize geographic skills as they relate to the study of the United States (e.g., locate the major physical features, including the plains, major rivers, bodies of water, mountain ranges, and continents; locate the major political features, including countries, regions, and states; apply map and globe skills to the study of the United States: e.g., direction, legend, scale, grid coordinates. [D, WSAS]
History: Time, Continuity, and Change
2. Know how to use the processes and resources of historical inquiry to develop historical perspective, explain historical relationships, and analyze issues that affect the present and the future
The study of history requires obtaining and deriving meaning from historical information. It is essential that students of history be able to use the process of historical inquiry to formulate historical questions, identify patterns of events, analyze cause-and-effect relationships, and evaluate historical arguments in order to make usable conclusions. In addition, the skills needed for evaluating historical arguments are fundamental for understanding current social issues and policy.
Distinguish between primary and secondary sources; understand the advantages/disadvantages of primary and secondary sources.
Formulate historical questions based on primary and secondary sources, including documents, eyewitness accounts, letters and diaries, artifacts, historical sites, charges, graphs, almanacs, books and other written texts.
Gather information from multiple sources, including archives or electronic databases, to have experience with historical sources and to appreciate the need for multiple perspectives
Examine historical data to determine the adequacy and sufficiency of evidence, point of view, credibility of source, historical context, bias, distortion and propaganda, and to distinguish fact from opinion. [P D]
Interpret historical information presented on maps, charts, graphs, photographs, artworks, and timelines as it applies to historical, geographical, economical, and political issues or events. [P D, WSAS]
Apply historical thinking skills including classifying, comparing, interpreting, analyzing, summarizing, synthesizing, and evaluating, to understand the historical record; use historical thinking skills and perspective to solve problems and make decisions. [P D]
Investigate the relationship between events of different time periods by using broad conceptual ideas such as "migration," "settlement," "conflict," "change" and "reform" to connect like events and compare/contrast them. [D]
Analyze how contemporary concerns and events affect and are affected by history by applying knowledge of historical events to recent major events and by utilizing current news to discuss past events; understands that historical accounts are subject to change based on newly uncovered records. [D]
Conduct short-term historical investigation and develop written narratives and short interpretative essays to explain results; conduct long-term historical investigation and explain results in a project-based format. [D]
Understand the relationship between local, state, and United States history; understand that each can impact the other; understand examples of local and Wisconsin history as they fit into the larger picture (e.g., Black Hawk War, removal of Stockbridge-Munsee from New York to Wisconsin, Wisconsin’s Iron Brigade in Civil War, Polish and German immigration to Marathon County, Hmong migration, contributions of D.C. Everest)
Understand the chronological organization of history; understand the impact of major ideas, eras, themes, technologies, developments and turning points in American History
Chronological thinking is at the very heart of historical reasoning. It provides the framework for organizing historical thought: for determining the order in time of historical developments; for determining how long they lasted; and for examining the various relationships among historical events. It provides students with a sense of their past, which is necessary for them to understand the present and see possibilities for the future.
Prehistory and early history of the Americas to 1607 [W]
Understand the changes caused by European exploration in the Americas (e.g., explore American Indian nations prior to European exploration of New World; analyze reasons for European exploration; assess the impact of European exploration on African slaves and American Indian nations [D, WI]
Colonial history and settlement, 1607-1763 [W]
Analyze European colonization and settlement of North America (e.g., understand where and why European countries colonized North America; assess reasons for settlement of English colonies) [D]
Understand the economic, political, and social patterns in the development of Thirteen English colonies (e.g., contrast economies of three major colonial regions: New England, Middle, and Southern; assess impact of geography on three regions; explain development of self-government; understand lifestyles and cultures) [D]
Understand reasons for conflict in North America, attempts at compromise and the outcomes (e.g., between settlers and Native Americans, between European powers – causes and outcome of French and Indian War) [D]
American Revolution and early government period, 1763-1815 [W]
Understand the ideas and events that led to the Revolutionary War (e.g., explore economic/political events which led to armed conflict; understand the impact of individuals and groups in the revolutionary movement, explain major ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence) [D, WI]
Assess the factors affecting the course of the American Revolution and those which contributed to victory (e.g., examine advantages/disadvantages of Continental Army and British; European aide to the American cause) [D]
Evaluate the contributions of individuals and groups to the Revolution (e.g., identify impact of key people such as George Washington, Thomas Paine, John Adams, King George III; analyze the role of political groups such as Sons & Daughters of Liberty, Committees of Correspondence, First and Second Continental Congress; examine contributions of social groups such as women, free and enslaved blacks, American Indians) [D]
Understand the effects of the American Revolution (e.g., analyze terms of Treaty of Paris; determine the strengths/weaknesses of Articles of Confederation; understand problems of the emerging nation; understand the effect the Revolution had on various groups of people.
Understand the compromises that led to the ratification of the Constitution; know therole and functions of the three branches of government; examine constitutionalprinciples of separation of powers and check and balances; understand why a bill ofrights were included in the Constitution; understand the role of our Founding Fathers. [D WI]
Territorial growth of the United States before the Civil War, 1815-1860
Understand ideas and events that motivated the expansion of the United States (e.g.,
consequences of Louisiana Purchase, concept of manifest destiny, role of explorers in the expansion of U.S., examine the groups that came West – mountain men, Mormon pioneers, California 49ers, Asian and Irish immigrants).
Understand conflicts during American expansion (e.g., causes and results of War of 1812; analyze government policies toward and treaties with Native American nations – relocation, removal, assimilation, and sovereignty; understand the impact of the Mexican War on the land and people of American Southwest)
Understand how new inventions and transportation methods stimulated western expansion; assess the impact of the early Industrial Revolution on the United States.
Expansion of political rights and social rights before the Civil War, 1815-1860
Investigate the development of the American political party system (e.g., differences between Federalist and Democratic-Republicans; trace political parties through 18th and 19th centuries [D WI]
Understand the evolution of democracy and the extension of democratic principles (e.g., Supreme Court strengthening of national government, states’ rights issues which led to sectionalism, relationship between national and state governments, change in political process to involve more people [D] SS.3.8.15 Understand the impact of social reforms on Americans during the 19th century (e.g., Examine abolitionist movement, reform in education, religion, prison systems and treatment of the mentally ill, extension of women’s political and legal rights. [D]
Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-1877 [W]
Analyze differences and events that led to the Civil War (e.g., cultural differences between north and South, sectional economic differences, states’ rights leading to conflict, failure of compromise to ease sectional differences, abolitionist movement increasing conflict; the election of 1860) [D WI WSAS] SS.3.8.17 Understand the factors that affected the course of the war and contributed to Union victory (e.g., advantages and disadvantages of Union and Confederacy, Impact of the Emancipation Proclamation, contributions of key individuals – Lincoln, Davis, Lee, Grant; how the Civil War affected all people in the United States) [D] SS.3.8.18 Understand the Reconstruction period and how it affected the United States following the Civil War (e.g., purpose of Reconstruction, social impact of Reconstruction, political changes brought by Reconstruction – 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, the end of Reconstruction) [D]
Growth in the West, 1860-1900
Understand the development of the American West following the Civil War (e.g., Who went to the West – farmers, ranchers, miners, American Indian nations, reasons why people went to the West, impact of mining and ranching on land and people, impact of the railroad on western development) [D]
Analyze settlement of the West (e.g., changes in the landscape, development of cities in impact on Native Americans); examine the conflict among various groups in the West (e.g., ranchers, miners, farmers, Indian Wars, immigrants) [D]
Civics: Political Science and Citizenship
To become effective citizens in a democratic republic, students should understand the evolution of democratic forms of government and the long struggle for liberty, equality, justice, and dignity. Students must be able to deal with the inevitable conflicts caused by the pursuit of both principles of liberty and equality, and of individual rights and justice. Knowledge about the structure of power, authority, and governance is essential if young citizens are to develop civic responsibility. Young people become more effective citizens and problem solvers when they know how local, state, and national governments function and interact
3. Understands the purposes, principles, and structure of the United States government
Knows early documents/people/ideas that influenced the legal, political, and constitutional heritage of the United States (e.g., Magna Charta, English Bill of Rights, Mayflower Compact, John Locke, Virginia House of Burgesses) [D WI]
Analyze important political values such as freedom, democracy, equality, and justice embodied in documents such as the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights [D WI]
Understand how the federal system separates the powers of federal, state and local governments in the United States, and how the legislative, executive, and judicial powers are balanced at the federal level. [D, WI]
Understands the development and role of political parties and interest groups over the course of American history. Understand how the two party-system has helped to provide a stable government system [D WI]
4. Understands citizenship and civic responsibility
Use print and broadcast media to acquire an awareness of current events; understand civic responsibility involves awareness of current events [D WSAS]
Recognize that historical understanding is relevant and valuable in the student’s life and for participating in local, state, national, and global communities; solve civic problems by studying patterns in history to identify issues and problems and generate potential solutions, assess the merits of options, act, and evaluate the effectiveness of actions [P]
Economics: Choices and Decisions
Throughout history, economic developments have profoundly affected people’s lives and the social and political structures under which they have lived. Students must understand that economic factors influence historical event and continue to impact events today. Individuals, families, businesses, and governments make complex economic choices as they decide which goods and services to provide and how to allocate limited resources for distribution and consumption. In a global economy marked by rapid technological change, students must learn how to be "economic citizens."
5. Understands the role economic choices and economic decisions have played in American history
Understands how investments in human and physical capital, including new technology, affect the standards of living and quality of life (e.g., spinning jenny, cotton gin, canal system, steam locomotive, telegraph) [D WI]
Understand the foundations of the U.S. economic system as established by Hamilton (e.g., debt assumption, tariffs, national Bank, excise taxes); understand that economic policy has generated throughout history [D WI]
Understand the role economics has played in events throughout U.S. States history (e.g., Colonial trade with Native Americans, mercantilism, taxation in the American Revolution, Whiskey Rebellion, War of 1812, Nullification Crisis); analyze the involvement of government in economics throughout history [D WI]
Understand that the economic history is a cyclical one of prosperity and depression; analyze governmental attempts at controlling the business cycle [D WI ]
Behavioral Sciences: Individuals, Institutions and Society
An understanding of the history of societies is indispensable to an understanding of the rest of history and to the understanding by individual students of their roles in the societies in which they live. Students need to understand the interactions that led to the diversity of societies. As citizens, students need to know how institutions are maintained or changed and how they influence individuals, cultures, and societies. Knowledge of the factors that contribute to an individual’s uniqueness is essential to understanding the influences on self and on others.
6. Understands the interactions among individuals, groups, and institutions and the impact on history
Understand the interactions and contributions of various peoples and cultures that have lived in or migrated, immigrated, or were brought to the area that is now the United States, including African, Asian, European, Latino, and Native American [D]
Describe and analyze the origins and consequences of slavery, forced removal of Native Americans and other forms of persecution; understand discrimination of immigrant groups throughout history including recent immigrant groups to Wisconsin [D WI]
Analyze the values/character traits held by specific people who influenced history (e.g., Founding Fathers, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Abraham Lincoln, Chief Joseph); analyze how things may have been different in the absence of specific people, ideas, beliefs, and certain chance events) [D]
Wisconsin Model Academic Standards Rationales/Standards and benchmarks were used/adapted.
Colorado Model Content Standards: History Rationales from the Colorado standards were used in their entirety or adapted.
Utah Social Studies Content Standards: United States History Various standards/benchmarks from the Utah standards were used/adapted.
Connecticut Academic Standards Various standards/benchmarks from the Connecticut were used/adapted.
Essential Knowledge: The Debate Over What American Students Should Know Various standards/benchmarks were used/adapted.